Inter-Disciplinary Ethics Applied (IDEA CETL) is a teaching, research and consultancy body at the University of Leeds specialising in applied and professional ethics. We teach undergraduate and postgraduate programmes in professional ethics both face-to-face and online. As academic philosophers we are interested in a wide spectrum of ethical concerns, including the ethics of drones as they are used in war and in peace. The law responding to drones is in a nascent stage of development, one in which ethical discussion should play a key part as we seek to understand the rights and wrongs of drones, as well as of particular drone policies-
Here is a paper connecting technotherapeutics to uberveillance. It is titled: "Treatment adherence redefined: a critical analysis of technotherapeutics" and appears in Nurs Inq. 2013 Mar;20(1):60-70. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1800.2012.00595.x. Epub 2012 Mar 2. It is written by Gagnon M, Jacob JD, Guta A.
Full article here.
"In an era where health-care is more technologically dominated than ever before, we argue that there is a need to critically examine the production of what we call technotherapeutics and their potential use within clinical settings. Furthermore, we posit that the development of technologically enhanced pharmaceuticals should be examined concurrently with the rise of überveillance (Michael and Michael 2010) – a new form of surveillance that will drastically change healthcare practices in the upcoming years.
According to Michael and Michael (2010), überveillance has to do with real time tracking and continuous monitoring whether it is of identity, time, location, physiological responses, or conducts. It is a type of surveillance that is always on and ever-present because it is embedded inside the human body via microchip technology (Michael and Michael 2010). It is the ultimate form of surveillance which allows information not previously available to be captured and transmitted to healthcare providers, probation officers, government authorities, and so on (Michael and Michael 2010). While this form of surveillance may seem promising for some, we consider that its application to the field of health-care raises numerous questions and concerns of a political and ethical nature. The aim of this paper is to interrogate the use of technotherapeutics for the continuous tracking and monitoring of treatment adherence in the context of chronic illnesses. Drawing on the seminal work of late French philosopher Michel Foucault, we argue that technotherapeutics serve to discipline chronically ill individuals and govern the health of entire populations who suffer from chronic conditions. Our critical (thus political) analysis draws on the Foucauldian concepts of governmentality and bio-power, which have been widely used to disrupt normalizing discourses in the field of health-care. To this end, we explore the ways in which technotherapeutics function as instruments of bio-power and problematize a mode of surveillance that is intrinsically linked to the logics of governmentality."
"...A lot of parents worry when their kids first start taking the school bus by themselves. What if they’re snatched from the bus stop? What if they get off at the wrong stop? What if the bus is hijacked? Well, while the Kidtrack system can’t keep any of those things from happening, it can at least keep track of which children are on which buses, and where.
Kidtrack was developed through a collaboration between Fujitsu Frontech North America, and IT/logistics company T&W Operations."
UAS Media Release by UOW
The University of Wollongong’s Faculty of Engineering places a great emphasis on ensuring soft skills are embedded into their undergraduate Engineering courses. Staff responsible for engineering ethics education at UOW, have developed educational approaches which encourage students to consider the complexity of ethical dilemmas they will encounter in the workforce. UOW engineering students are supported in developing engineering ethics skills that have a distinct strength toward intercultural competency. The link between ethics, culture and social responsibility is well developed with some students even graduating from the Faculty with a Social Policy major in Information Technology.
In understanding the tension between Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) and Drones, students are provided with contextual case studies from which to form personal judgements about the value of different technologies. In essence it is ‘engineering-in-context’ that provides the litmus test for whether or not the application of a technology will be beneficial to society or is likely to cause harm to society. The context for deploying a drone for instance, may be informed by social policies, geo-political processes, and economic systems of state.
Historically, UOW has had researchers who have researched and built first generation UASs for “search and rescue” as far back as 2001. Students are exposed to a variety of scenarios and case studies that show how some risks can be curbed by building in technical limitations to an innovation. In other contexts, regulations and licensing may be entirely absent requiring students to think about how new guidelines might be established for the safe use of UASs in a public airspace.
As complexity continues to rise with highly interconnected systems of a non-homogeneous nature and society’s demands for service growth, the focus on non-technical areas of engineering education are essential. Culture inextricably impacts what is considered to be socially responsible and ethical in everyday life.
I've gone through the list of references and have found many that we have previously cited in our own work which provides additional confidence in the literature reviewed. For example, see the work of Roba Abbas in the special issue in the Journal of Location-Based Services of Dec 2011 here where similar data of a small-scale trial of real users was depicted using GIS for representation and scenarios. Roba's PhD was part of an Australian Research Council Discovery grant on Location-based services Regulation in Australia that received a high commendation on completion. Other papers that could add inspiration to the paper in Nature for those seeking additional references include papers submitted to this special issue as a whole that included individual submissions by Hamed Ketabdar of Deutsche Telekom Labs, Clarke & Wigan of Australia, Michael and Michael's editorial which is still the most read article in JLBS according to Taylor and Francis Online, among others .
"Human chipping is considered one of the more far-fetched options for future human identity management. It forms an intrusion in the body and hence evokes medical risks that tokens and biometrics do not have. It is also more controversial (‘mark of the beast’) than ID-cards, surveillance cameras and biometrics together. Nevertheless, implanting an RFID chip directly under the skin is already more prevalent than one would expect. Most common is the implant for medical or research purposes."
sUASNews.com media statement re: UAVs Pros-Cons Event
Small Unmanned Aerial Systems (sUAS) are being adopted at a rapid pace among civilians for use in research, agriculture, environmental, and surveillance applications. As this booming industry develops, sUASNews.com positions itself to be the premier source for information.
Written and edited by industry experts, sUASNews.com provides updates and analysis on legislation and technological innovations through stories, webcasts, podcasts, and newsletters.
sUASNews.com recognizes the UAVs Pros-Cons Symposium as an important opportunity for earnest discussion about the opportunities and risks for unmanned aircraft.
DroneJournalism.org media statement re: UAVs Pros-Cons Event
To a great extent, the quality of a democracy is determined by the quality of information available to the public. DroneJournalism.org was founded in 2011 to help equip journalists with an innovative new technology to provide that information: small, unmanned aircraft.
We are an organization of journalists, engineers, and unmanned systems operators dedicated to establishing the technical and ethical framework to deploy unmanned systems for reporting (i.e. “drone journalism”).
DroneJournalism.org supports debate and thoughtful consideration of these powerful tools, with attention paid not solely to the reasonable limits of the technology, but also to the great potential for “drones” to provide perspective and hard data to essential investigations.
The UAVs Pros-Cons Symposium provides a platform for an important debate around a disruptive technology. Matthew Schroyer, founder of DroneJournalism.org, will contribute perspectives on journalism, ethics, data-gathering, and science education for the UAVs Pros-Cons Symposium.
"Electronics won’t always be rigid, brittle wafers contained in bunch of complex circuit boards. Recent advances have brought us almost to the point of “printing” the chips onto human skin.
Researchers at Massachusetts-based startup MC10 have been working on commercializing a stretchable electronics technology that will be soft and conformal to the human body so that they can stretch, twist and move.
The company’s CEO, David Icke, spoke about this new skin sensing technology called the “bio-stamp” at the World Economic Forum’s Annual Meeting in Davos. He said the bio-stamp can measure a person’s heart rate or EKG when worn on the skin or measure signals from the brain if worn on the forehead. It can also report muscle activity, temperature, motion and strength. According to Icke, future uses could include minimally invasive or implantable medical devices.
The technology behind the bio-stamp has been developed by University of Illinois materials scientist John Rogers, a company cofounder. The stretchable Bio-Stamp is formed by depositing gold electrodes and wires that are just a few hundred nanometers thick onto silicon wafers by conventional means, then peeling them off and applying them to stretchable polymers. Unlike organic polymer electronics that can only bend, this approach makes electronics that can stretch and are faster than devices made of organic semiconductor materials, so they can provide precise real-time biological readings."
Read more here.
Media statement from EPIC regarding the #uavsproscons event on June 30, 2013 in Toronto Canada.
"...EPIC is a public interest research center in Washington, D.C. established in 1994 to focus public attention on emerging civil liberties and to protect privacy, the First Amendment, and constitutional values. EPIC has a particular interest in preserving privacy safeguards against expansive surveillance systems. With special capabilities and enhanced equipment, drones are designed and built to conduct far more detailed surveillance than their aerial ancestors. There are substantial legal and constitutional issues involved in the deployment of aerial drones by government and commercial entities that need to be addressed. No legislation currently provides adequate safeguards to protect privacy rights against the increased use of drones in the United States. As drone technology becomes cheaper and more available, the threat to privacy will become more substantial. Legal protections are necessary to protect individual privacy, ensure transparency of drone operations, and hold drone operators accountable for invasive and unlawful practices. "
Drones have great potential, and some of their promise is already being realised. But APF is seriously concerned that the enthusiasm for surveillance drones will cause serious harm in a wide variety of ways.
Each organisation that develops, promotes and applies drones must recognise their ethical obligations and the scope for harm both to people, and to the organisation's ROI. In concrete terms, that requires early engagement with relevant civil society organisations, and a privacy impact assessment (PIA) process for each particular application.
APF looks forward to engagement with relevant organisations, both generally, and in the context of a similar event that it is understood will be run in Australia in November 2013.
Roger Clarke, Chair, Australian Privacy Foundation
:...Iran's Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) declared hacking of another foreign spy drone during the first day of Payambar-e Azam 8 (The Great Prophet 8) wargames, IRNA reported.
'A foreign spy drone was hacked outside the field of Payambar-e Azam 8 wargames on Saturday,' Spokesman of the Wargames General Hamid Sarkheili told reporters."